Welcome to Stallard Kane Associates

New rules will require public sector workers to speak fluent English

Customer-facing employees in both public and private sector organisations are increasingly expected to be able to speak fluent English. However, efforts to assess fluency can be controversial.

Earlier this month, the High Court decided to reject an attempt by taxi firm Uber to challenge the requirements of a new English language test for private-hire drivers. Transport for London (TfL), which is responsible for transport in the capital, plans to introduce rules that mean all Uber drivers from non-English speaking countries will have to pass a reading, writing and listening test in order to obtain or renew their licence. TfL says that the test is part of a range of measures designed to enhance public safety.

Uber claimed that the requirement was disproportionate and contravened the Equality Act. However, the court has accepted the principle of the new test and the standard of English it will require, although Uber was given permission to proceed with its challenge as to whether exemptions should be permitted for some drivers.

The ruling comes at a time when the government is planning to bring into force Part 7 of the Immigration Act 2016, which will require all public sector workers in customer-facing roles to speak fluent English. The stated intention is to increase standards in order to meet “the public’s reasonable expectation to be able to speak English when accessing public services”.


The Cabinet Office and Home Office have published a code of practice aimed at supporting public authorities in complying with the new rules. The code:

  • sets out which public authorities and workers are within the scope of the new rules, as well as what should be regarded as a customer-facing role;
  • provides guidance on how to decide what standard of English should be required for a particular role;
  • provides advice on communicating the new requirement to existing staff and potential new recruits;
  • explains what action can be taken to deal with workers who do not meet the required standard;
  • sets out the requirements for a complaints procedure to deal with concerns which might be raised by members of the public about a worker’s English language skills; and
  • highlights other legal obligations which public authorities need to take into account, including under the Equality Act, when complying with the new fluency duty.

The new rules will affect a significant number of public sector roles. Some positions, including many within the teaching and medical professions, are already subject to a language standard that will be sufficient to meet the requirements of the new legislation. However, the government estimates that around 1.8 million public sectors workers in customer-facing roles are not currently subject to any formal English language standard.


To comply with the fluency requirement, public authorities will need to ensure that managers and relevant HR personnel are familiar with the new rules and the code of practice. Policies and procedures, including those that relate to recruitment, will need to be updated.

Systems will need to be devised for assessing the language skills of existing staff in customer facing roles. Suitable training will need to be made available to those who do not meet the required standard.

Public authorities will need to consider options for remedial action. In some cases it might be possible to make adjustments to a role, such as reducing customer contact or providing for communications to be supplemented with written material. The option of redeployment to another role will also need to be considered.

If all else fails, a public authority could consider dismissing an employee who is unwilling or unable to meet the required standard. The code makes clear that the matter should first be investigated in accordance with the employer’s capability and disciplinary procedure.

Although the code provides useful guidance, the appropriate standard of English is something that each employer will need to determine on a role by role basis. It seems likely that difficult decisions will sometimes have to be made about what degree of fluency is required and how this should be assessed. A requirement to speak English to a certain standard could amount to indirect race discrimination under the Equality Act if it cannot be shown to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. It will be important for the employer to be able to demonstrate that the standard has been set at a level that is reasonable in the circumstances.

Where an employee’s difficulties in meeting the standard arise from a disability, the employer will need to consider whether reasonable adjustments need to be made. The code suggests that for a worker whose first language is a signed language, the fluency duty could be met by the provision of a sign language interpreter.

Public authorities will also need to be mindful of the possibility of malicious complaints being made about a worker’s English. The code makes clear that such complaints should be rejected.


Added: 19-09-2016

Breaking News

Head Office:
First Floor Offices, 11-23 Market St.
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire
DN21 2BL

Tel: 01427 678660

HR and Accounts:
26/26a Hickman Street
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire
DN21 2DZ

Tel: 01427 678660

Hull Office:
West 1, West Dock Street
Hull HU3 4HH

Tel: 01482 534 348

Manchester Office:
Hyde Park House, Cartwright Street
Newton, Hyde, Cheshire SK14 4EH

Tel: 0161 367 1214

Birmingham Office:
2450 Regents Court The Crescent
Birmingham Business Park Solihull B37 7YE

Tel: 0121 69 59 290

London Office:
4th Floor, 86-90 Paul Street
London EC2A 4NE

Tel: 0207 111 0958